domingo, 27 de julio de 2014

198. Ejercicio fácil de traducción de diferentes tiempos verbales




"It´s "fun to ride" a bike"
"Es "divertido pasear" en bici"





Hacer ejercicios de traducción es una muy buena manera para aprender inglés, vocabulario y expresiones.

Intentar traducir estas frases pensando como ordenar las palabras en inglés para hacer una frase correcta.
Apuntar vocabulario y las expresiones en un cuaderno
(VER SOLUCION DEBAJO DE LA CANCION)

1. Creo que te conozco.
2. ¿Sabes hablar inglés?
3. Estoy mejorando poco a poco.
4. ¿Trabajas?
5. No en este momento.
6. Emepezaré de nuevo en Octubre.
7.¿De donde eres?
8. Nací en Santa Barbara.
9. ¿Vienes a la fiesta esta noche?
10. No puedo ir.
11. ¿Está tu hermana en casa
12. ¿Tienes tiempo para estudiar?
13. Estamos esperando el autobus.
14. A veces tarda mucho.
15. Nos vamos de vacaciones mañana por la mañana.
16. Te llamo cuando lleguemos.
17. No te vi anoche.
18. Estaba enfermo.
19. ¿Cuando vienes a Granada?
20. No lo se.
21. ¿Como se encuentra tu madre?
22. Está mucho mejor.
23. ¿Cuanto te gastas en comida cada semana? 
24. Me gasto demasiado.
25. Me voy a Irlanda la semana que viene.
26. ¿Cuanto tiempo de quedarás?
27. Si encuentro un trabajo, me quedaré más tiempo.
28. Me gustaría hablar bien en inglés.
29. ¿Vas a ir solo?
30. Me voy con unos amigos.
31. Uno de ellos ya tiene un trabajo alli.
32. ¿De que trabaja?
33. Trabaja en una tienda de animales.
34. Es tarde. Tenemos que irnos.
35. ¿Puedes llamarme más tarde?
36. ¿Donde te compraste tus gafas de sol?
37. ¿Porqué lo quieres saber?
38. Me quiero comprar unas como las tuyas.
39. Creo que va a llover.
40. Que bien!
41. Me encanta cuando llueve.
42. Susana fuma muchísimo.
43. ¿Porqué fuma tanto?
44. No tengo ni idea.
45. Mira a ese hombre cruzando la calle.
46. ¿Que le pasa?
47. Creo que ha bebido demasiado.
48. Hay mucha gente en la playa.
49. Pues ayer había mucho mas.
50. Es más divertido ir en bici por el campo.
51. Te esperaré.
52. ¿Quieres un pedazo de tarta de manzana casero?
53. Hay muy poca gente andando por la calle.
54. Aún estoy en el trabajo
55. Lo pasamos muy bien en Irlanda.


Mumford & Sons sing "I will wait for you"






Translation solution

1. I think I know you.
2. Can you speak English?
3. I´m getting better little by little.
4. Do you work?
5. Not at this moment.
6. I´ll start again in October.
7. Where are you from?
8. I was born in Santa Barbara.
9. Are you coming to the party tonight?
10. I can´t go.
11. Is your sister at home?
12. Do you have time to study?
13. We´re waiting for the bus.
14. It sometimes takes a long time.
15. We´re going on vacation tomorrow morning.
16. I´ll call you when we arrive.
17. I didn´t see you last night.
18. I was ill.
19. When are you coming to Granada?
20. I don´t know.
21. How does your mother feel?
22. She´s a lot better.
23. How much do you spend on food every week?
24. I spend too much.
25. I´m going to Ireland next week.
26. How long will you stay?
27. If I find a job, I´ll stay longer.
28. I would like to speak English well.
29. Are you going alone?
30. I´m going with some friends.
31. One of them already has a job there.
32. What does he do?
33. He works in a pet shop.
34. It´s late. We have to go.
35. Can you call me later
36. Where did you buy your sunglasses?
37. Why do you want to know?
38. I want to buy ones like yours.
39. I think it´s going to rain.
40. How nice
41. I love it when it rains.
42. Susana smokes a lot.
43. Why does she smoke so much?
44. I have no idea.
45. Look at that man crossing the street.
46. What´s the matter with him?
47. I think he has drunk too much.
48. There are a lot of people at the beach.
49. Well there were a lot more yesterday.
50. It´s more fun to go by bicycle in the countryside.
51. I´ll wait for you.
52. Do you want a piece of homemade apple pie?
53. There are very few people walking in the street.
54. I´m still at work.
55. We had a great time in Ireland.

viernes, 11 de julio de 2014

197. EL USO DEL INFINITIVO PARA EXPRESAR INTENCIÓN

Para expresar "una intención inmediata,se usa el infinitivo  

El infinitivo es usar el segundo verbo con "TO + VERBO

Un error muy frecuente al hablar en inglés, es decir 

"FOR" con el segundo verbo en infinitivo

Ejemplo:

Un español diría esta frase en inglés pensando en 

español:

- We went to the market for to buy some food.
-“Fuimos al supermercado para comprar comida.” 

La frase correcta sería esta y no usando “FOR”:

- We went to the supermarket to buy some 

food.

Más ejemplos usando el "infinitivo de intención":

- I´m calling you to tell you that I got a job = Te llamo para decirte que conseguí un trabajo
- Pilar went to Ireland to learn English  =  Pilar se fue a Irlanda para aprender ingles
- I´m going to Australia to find a job  = Me voy a Australia para encontrar un trabajo
- My boss sent me to talk to our client  = Mi jefe me mandó para hablar con nuestro cliente
- Marco needs a car to go to work everyday = Marco necesita un coche para ir al trabajo todos los días 
- I´m here to talk to you about something = Estoy aquí para hablar contigo sobre algo
- Are you calling me to ask me for more money? = ¿Me estás llamando para pedirme más dinero?
- I just called to say I love you  = Simplemente llamé para decirte que te quiero
- He just went out to have a coffee = Acaba de salir para tomar un café


A veces también se usa “IN ORDER TO” o  “SO AS TO” +

INFINITIVO = "para expresar intención".....pero la

la "intención es menos inmediata"

Ejemplos:

- We left early in order to arrive on time for the meeting  = Salimos temprano para llegar a tiempo a la reunion
- I bought a lot of food so as to have enough for everyone  = Compré mucha comida para tener bastante para todos
- We have to buy a bigger car to have more space  = Tenemos que comprar un coche mas grande para tener mas espacio
- I´m calling you so as to go over the report together = Te llamo para repasar el informe juntos
- The police closed the street in order to avoid any problems = La policia cerró la calle para evitar cualquier problema 


Para negar se usa “NOT

Ejemplos:

- It´s better to leave now in order not to miss the train  =Es mejor salir ahora para no perder el tren
- We took off our shoes so as not to dirty the floor  =Nos quitamos los zapatos para no ensuciar el suelo
- I´ll sleep in the other room so as not to wake you up = Dormiré en el otro cuarto para no despertarte
- They took off their shoes in order not to make any noise = Se quitaron sus zapatos para no hacer ruido


Ejercicio de traducción (ver solución mas abajo)

1. Vendimos nuestra casa de campo para comprar un apartamento delante de la playa.
2. No quería decirtelo para no preocuparte.
3. Nos fuimos a Las Vegas para casarnos.
4. No me llevaré una maleta tan grande para no pagar tanto.
5. No pongas la tele tan alta para no despertar a los niños.
6. Siempre me llamas para pedirme dinero.
7. Me tomé una aspirina para no tener una resaca.
8. No cogimos el coche para ir a Madrid.
9. El jefe quiere tener una reunión para hablar de ciertos asuntos.
10. Está estudiando durante un mes para aprobar el examen.
11. Tenemos que levantarnos muy pronto para no estar en un atasco.
12. El quiere comprarse un traje nuevo para ir a la entrevista.
13. Salimos dos horas antes para no tener problemas en el aeropuerto.
14. Vine aquí para verte y para pedirte perdón.
15. Compramos una tele más grande para ver películas como en el cine.
16. Te envié un mensaje para que me compraras unas manzanas verdes para hacer una tarta        de manzana. 
17. Fui en bici para hacer ejercicio.
18. Nos vamos a pasear por el bosque para hacer unas fotos.
19. Compré unos bombones para darselos a mi hermana para su cumpleaños.
20. El va al gimnasio cada mañana para estar en buena forma
21. Me fuí de compras para comprarte un regalo.
22. He venido para hablar con el director.
23. Te estaba esperando para invitarte a desayunar.
24. Quiero que me compres unos tomates.
25. Mas vale que pases la noche aqui para no conducir por la noche.

Stevie Wonder sings this great song"I just called to say I love you" Simplemente llame para decirte que te quiero
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ezD9fndbeyw


Translation solution

1. We sold our country house to buy an apartment in front of the beach.

2. I didn´t want to tell you so as not (in order not) to worry you.
3. We went to Las Vegas to get married.
4. I won´t take such a large suitcase in order not (so as no) to pay so much.
5. Don´t put the T.V. on so loud so as not to wake up the kids.
6. You´re always calling me to ask me for money.
7. I took an asprin so as not to have a hangover.
8. We didn´t take the car to go to Madrid.
9. The boss wants to have a meeting to talk about certain matters.
10. She´s studying for a month in order to pass the exam.
11. We have to get up very early in order not to be in a traffic jam.
12. He wants to buy a new suit to go for the interview.
13. We left two hours earlier so as not to have problems at the airport.
14. I came here to see you and tell you I´m sorry.
15. We bought a bigger T.V. in order to watch movies (films) like in the cinema.
16. I sent you a message to buy me some green apples in order to make an apple pie.
17. I went by bicycle to do exercise.
18. We´re going to walk in the forest to take some pictures (photographs).
19. I bought some chocolates to give them to my sister for her birthday.
20. He goes to the gym every morning in order to be in good shape.
21. I went shopping to buy you a present.
22. I´ve come to speak to the director.
23. I was waiting for you to invite you for breakfast.
24. I want you to buy me some tomatoes.
25. You´d better spend the night here, so as not to drive at night.


miércoles, 9 de julio de 2014

196. GALICIA...LAND OF ENCHANTMENT

The best way to feel the essence of Galicia is by listening to Galician Folk music by Luar na Lubre
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ivF1z7NjfW8


  1. Galician is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch. It is spoken by some 3 million people, mainly in Galicia, an autonomous community located in northwestern Spain, (top left-hand side) where it is official along with Spanish. 



It is a cold, wet climate, with rugged terrain and over 700 miles of rocky coastlines and historically one of the poorest areas of Spain. Small family farms of an acre or two exist growing vegetables, however many families live from the fish they catch. The people of Galicia are descendents of Celtic people, whose myths, legends and belief in the mystic are strong even today.

Watch this beautiful video about the origins of Galicia
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1m0SMiAGCZ8




People from all over the world walk "The way to Santiago" 




This pilgrimage journey to Santiago can be done by walking, by bicycle or even by horse.  
It is a journey one will never forget because it will be the journey of your life, and perhaps even giving thanks for an answered prayer.
You will experience peacefulness as you travel through breathtaking pure nature, and simply feel that going back to another age.
One beautiful village where you can start your journey is St Jean Pied de Port, France next to Navarra, Spain, providing you are an experienced trekker as this journey can probably take about a month or more. I was there, so I can recommend this quaint village in the mountains.  

You can also depart from another beautiful village called Astorga, Spain. I was there walking around seeing it´s beauty and ending up having lunch in the main square.....simply breathtaking.
The journey from Astorga to Santiago can take around nine days.



St. Jean Pied de Port


           Astorga square




Now relax by listening to more Galician Folk music by Carlos Nuñez
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ezudAvNqM1E



You can also visit this ancient popular festival called: 

"Rapa das Bestas - Spanish Horse Wrestling Festival"


It takes place the first weekend in July in Sabucedo, Pontevedra. Galicia. 

The horses are rounded up from where they live in the wild and brought into a corral..









People gather all the untamed horses in a corral, where men and women of all ages wrestle them to the ground with their bare hands to trim their manes and tails and brand them. This festival goes on for about three days starting the first Saturday of July.

Or another festival called "Magosto" 

Each region in northern Spain has its own unique twist on the castañada festival. In the Galician town of Ribadeo, for example, the magosto festival is celebrated in the market square where locals and visitors sample roast chestnuts, meat or fish pies and wine. 

During magosto, revellers (very happy and boisterous people) also prepare the traditional Galician fire drink, known queimada. A special spirit drink flavoured with herbs or coffee, queimada is typically brewed while a spell is recited, then set aflame.


If at first you only want to come Galicia to enjoy the local cuisine, you must eat "Pulpo Gallego" = Galician squid and "Empanadas" = Meat pies. 

You can also visit this beautiful fishing village in Combarro to eat the delicious "Pulpo a la Gallega" or other kinds of fresh delicious seafood such as oysters, clams, giant prawns, mussels, or simply order a "Mariscada"; a huge platter of mixed seafood to make your mother water. 



The empanada, in English is called a meat turnover, “pasty” or meat pie. There are lots of different fillings, including meat, fish and vegetables. The ingredients of the fillings are chopped finely and mixed with lots of onion and some spices, then spread between two layers of pastry. Finally, it is baked and served hot.














I especially love the delicioussssss "Tuna and red pepper Empanada"




And it is said that "Lacon con Grelos" may be the most famous dish of Galicia. Lacón is boiled meat from the front leg of a pig. Grelos are the leaves of turnips. The lacón and grelos are then boiled together and served with sausage and potatoes.



And of course, don´t forget the famous Galician wines. "Ribeiro" a red wine, and Alabariño a white wine...........which will make you very happy indeed.




And we must not forget the myths and legends which 

are very present in Galicia such as this one:

The "Echanted Moura", supernatural being from the fairy tales of Portuguese and Galician folklore.


She often appears singing and combing her beautiful long hair, golden as gold or black as the night with a golden comb, and promises to give treasures to whom sets her free by breaking her spell. (In Galicia, though, they are more commonly redheads). According to José Leite de Vasconcelosmouras encantadas are “beings compelled by an occult power to live on a certain state of siege as if they were numb or asleep, insofar as a particular circumstance does not break their spell”.[2] According to ancient lore, they are the souls of young maidens who were left guarding the treasures that the mouros encantados(enchanted mouros) hid before heading to the Mourama. The legends describe the mouras encantadas as young maidens of great beauty or as charming princesses who are "dangerously seductive".[3][4] The mouras encantadas are shapeshifters and there are a number of legends, and versions of the same legend, as a result of centuries of oral tradition. They appear as guardians of the pathways into the earth and of the "limit" frontiers where it was believed that the supernatural could manifest itself.Mouras encantadas are magical maidens who guard castles, caves, bridges, wells, rivers, and treasures. José Leite de Vasconcelos considered as a possibility that the mouras encantadas may have had assimilated the characteristics of local deities, such as nymphs and spirits of nature. Consiglieri Pedroso also referred to the mouras encantadas as "feminine water genies".[5] The tales of the mouras are part of a wider lore of the "mouros encantados", who some times appear as giants or warriors, which also include the mourinhos or maruxinhos, a very small elf like people who live under the ground.[6][7][8]
Wikipedia

And of course, we mustn´t the Druids of Celtic origin 



Celtic lore, even nowadays, is full of magic and mystery, with a strong bond to nature. Like other European Celtic tribes, those of Spain adored the sun and the moon, and attached great significance to forests, rivers, wells, and mountains. The oak tree was particularly venerated (still a common feature in most Celtic societies), and worship was carried out in natural sites or clearings rather than temples.  In Galicia, many people still believe in the power of witches and druids, in the transmigration of souls and in animals with special powers. They practice rituals similar to those in parts of the British Isles and Brittany.
    
The Celts were pastoral by nature and little inclined to urban niceties.  As a result, there is little construction left that reveals their presence, especially in the interior, although the original sites of some Celtic settlements may be identified by the ending -briga.  What does remain is to be found in the north west of the peninsula, especially in Galicia and Asturias.  Here archaeological diggings and reconstruction show that the Celts built their villages on hills for strategic defence, and that the houses were circular with low stone walls and conical, thatched roofs of straw and broom; there were probably no windows.  The buildings –arranged somewhat haphazardly– housed both family and animals. These are common features of Celtic style in other Celtic lands: Scotland, Ireland, Wales, Cornwall, or Brittany for example. 

    Ruins of Celtic castro or village. Wikipedia.  
Modern day pilgrims travelling to Santiago de Compostela in Galicia can get a good feel for a Celtic village when stopping at the hamlet of O Cebreiro.  A kind of time warp exists on this windy hilltop pass where a number of restored  circular Celtic dwellings –called pallozas– evoke a distant time, especially when the mists and rains –so common in this area– are swirling around. 

 Celtic Spain is now almost exclusively reduced to Galicia. 
It may come as a surprise to visitors that many Galicians are fair-skinned and that the green, mist-laden, hilly countryside is reminiscent of Ireland or Scotland.  And they may be forgiven if they think they have landed in the Scottish Highlands if  they hear the swirl  of the bagpipes –the gaitas, Galicia’s native instrument– or witness the jig that often accompanies them.
 They may also be lucky enough to be present at dusk when a genuine queimada –a traditional fiery brew-- is being prepared to ward off the winter chills.  Accompanied by the wails of the bagpipes, a bruxo or sorcerer dressed in skins and wearing a horned helmet will call on the powers of heaven and earth and the spirits of the sea and fire as he stirs and ladles the flaming, potent drink. The witches of MacBeth would be at home here!


Sources

Collins, Roger  Spain: An Oxford Archaeological Guide Oxford, 1998
Santos Yanguas, Juan  Los pueblos de la España antigua Madrid, 1989

To end, enjoy more Celtic music
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qoktesLkHy8


viernes, 4 de julio de 2014

195. El "GOING TO" - El tiempo verbal mas usado

El tiempo verbal en inglés que mas se usa es el "GOING TO" 






"I´m going to go kite surfing"









Se usa el "GOING TO" para una intención ya planeada para hacer algo en un futuro próximo o para algo que es evidente que va a ocurrir -(tambien ver tema 6)

Al unir "Going con to" la gente dicen"Gonna," y también se usa mucho en canciones:

"I´m gonna tell you a secret" =  Te voy a contar un secreto


LA REGLA ES ESTA:

FRASE AFIRMATIVA:

SUJETO + VERBO SER / ESTAR + GOING TO + VERBO PRINICPAL + OBJETO

I am going to buy a present  =  Voy a comprar un regalo
- It is going to rain today  = Va a llover hoy 

*Recordar que se usa mucho "las contracciones" en inglés usando el pronombre (sujeto) de la frase + verbo ser/estar

- I´m going to buy a present  =  Voy a  comprar un regalo

- It´s going to rain today
- She´s (She is) going to buy a present  = Ella va a comprar un regalo
- They´re (They are) going to buy a present = Ellos van a comprar un regalo



                                               Heat wave = hola de calor  
                               "It´s going to be a very hot day today"

FRASE NEGATIVA: (Se pone "NOT" detrás del verbo ser/estar
- I´m not going to buy a present  = No voy a comprar un regalo
- She´s not going to buy a present  =  Ella no va a comprar un regalo
- They´re not going to buy a present  =  Ellos no van a comprar un regalo  

FRASE INTERROGATIVA: ( Se pone el verbo ser / estar al principio de la frase)   

- Are you going to buy a present?  =  ¿Vas a comprar un regalo?
- Is she going to buy a present ?    =  ¿Ella va a comprar un regalo? 
- Are they going to buy a present?  =  ¿Ellos van a comprar un regalo?

*AVECES NO HAY QUE PONER UN VERBO PRINCIPAL PARA DECIR QUE VAS A UN SITIO

- I´m going to Barcelona this weekend  =  Me voy a Barcelona este fin de semana
- We´re going to the beach  =  Nos vamos a la playa
- She´s going home  =  Ella se va a casa
- We´re going to my village in the mountains  = Nos vamos a mi pueblo en las montañas

Tambien se usa "There is" o "There are = HAY con el "GOING TO"

- There´s going to be a party at Susan´s house  =  Va a haber una fiesta en la casa de Susan
- There´s going to be a lot of food and drinks  =  Va a haber mucha comida y bebidas
- There are going to be a lot of people at the beach  = Va a haber mucha gente en la 
playa
- Are there going to be enough chairs for everyone? = ¿Va a haber bastantes sillas para todos?   

Here´s a poem by Alan using "going to"


I´m going to walk to the beach

To smell the sea and walk barefoot along the shore
Walking and breathing the sea breeze
It´s so quiet. No noise, no traffic
Only the sound of the waves
and the seagulls flying above me
It´s going to be a beautiful day,
so I´m going walk and simply feel free
I´m not going to worry about anything
because I already have everything
I´m just going to breathe the clean fresh air
because I´m happy to be alive
walking along the beach
and not worrying when I will arrive


Ejercicio de traduccion (ver solución mas abajo)

1. Me voy a Irlanda con unos amigos.

2. ¿Que vas a hacer mañana por la mañana?
3. Me voy a la playa con mi mejor amigo.
4. No me voy a ir contigo porque tengo que estudiar.
5. ¿Me vas a comprar un regalo para mi cumpleaños?
6. Ella no va a venir al trabajo el viernes.
7. ¿Vas a venir de compras con nosotros?
8. ¿Cuanta gente va a haber en la fiesta?
9. ¿Te vas a Paris en avión?
10. Vamos a vender nuestra casa de campo
11. Vamos a comprar un apartamento cerca de la playa.
12. ¿Que vas a cenar esta noche?
13. Voy a pedir una pizza.
14. Mira que oscuras están esas nubes. Creo que va a llover.
15. Me voy a vestirme para salir con mis amigos.
16. ¿Que vais a hacer?
17. Nos vamos a la discoteca?
18. ¿Cuando me vas a vender tu moto?
19. ¿Cuando vas a dejar de fumar?
20. Me jefe va a estar en una reunión toda la mañana. 
21. Te vas a caer si no tienes cuidado.
22. Nos vamos a quedar en este pueblo unos días.
23. Voy a hablarte en inglés para practicar.
24. Voy a tomarme una cerveza en el bar de abajo.
25. ¿Vas a aprobar el examen? Creo que si.
26. No voy a decirle nada a tu madre.
27. ¿Me vas a invitar a comer o no?
28. ¿No ibas a ir al cine esta noche?
29. Me voy a acostar porqué estoy cansado.
30. Va a haber mucho ruido esta noche hasta las 4 de la madrugada
31. Ese hombre se va a ahogar.
32. Va a haber mucha gente en la playa. 
33. No te lo dije porque estaba seguro que te ibas a enfadar.
34. Que bien que vas a venir a visitarnos!
35. Va a haber un atasco por la tarde, como siempre
36. Voy a ver como he traducido estas frases al inglés.
37. No se que voy a hacer. 

The great Elvis Presley sings " Stuck on you" = Hechizado de ti

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QeptZzle3V4





*En canciones se suele usar "gonna" para decir "going to"..... como en la canción de arriba



Translation solution
1. I´m going to Ireland with some friends
2. What are you going to do tomorrow morning?
3. I´m going to the beach with my best friend.
4. I´m not going to go with you because I have to study.
5. Are you going to buy me a present for my birthday?
6. She´s not going to come to work on Friday
7.  Are you going to come shopping with us?
8. How many people are there going to be at the party?
9. Are you going to Paris by plane?
10. We´re going to sell our country house
11. We´re going to buy an apartment near the beach.
12. What are you going to have for dinner tonight?
13. I´m going to order a pizza.
14. Look how dark those clouds are . I think it´s going to rain.
15. I´m going to get dressed to go out with my friends.
16. What are you going to do?
17. We´re going to the disco.
18. When are you going to sell me your motorcycle?
19. When are you going to stop smoking?
20. My boss is going to be in a meeting all day.
21. You´re going to fall down if you´re not careful
22. We´re going to stay in this village a few days.
23. I´m going to talk to you in English to practice.
24. I´m going to have a beer in the bar downstairs. 
25. Are you going to pass the test? I think so.
26. I´m not going to tell your mother anything.
27. Are you going to invite me to lunch, or not?
28. Weren´t you going to go to the cinema tonight?
29. I´m going to go to bed because I´m tired.
30. There´s going to be a lot of noise tonight until 4 in the morning.
31. That man is going to drown.
32. There´s going to be a lot of people at the beach.
33. I didn´t tell you because I was sure you were going to get angry.
34. How nice that you´re going to come to visit us!
35. There´s going to be a traffic jam in the afternoon, as usual.
36. I´m going to see how I have translated these sentences into English.
37. I don´t know what I´m going to do.