viernes, 13 de enero de 2012

103.) EL USO DE "MUST" Y "HAVE TO"


         "You musn´t drive so fast"









Cuando se usa"MUST" o "HAVE TO" puede ser un poco complicado porqué en español a veces no hay mucha diferencia entre "tener que hacer algo" o "debes hacer algo" PERO en inglés si que hay diferencias
(VER EL TEMA SOBRE LOS "VERBOS MODALES): CAN / COULD / MUST / MAY / MIGHT
SHOULD


1.) "MUST"se usa cuando hay una fuerte obligación o a veces alguien te dice que tienes que hacer algo y es necesario hacerlo para evitar problemas
Ejemplos:
Clara, you must study for the test or you won´t pass  = Debes estudiar para el examen o no aprobarás
We must leave now or will miss the train  = Debemos salir ahora o perderemos el tren
You mustn´t park the car in the yellow zone  = No debes aparcar el coche en la zona amarilla
You mustn´t drive if you have drunk too much alcohol = No debes conducir si has bebido demasiado alcohol
I must go or I´ll be late for the denstist  = Debo irme o llegaré tarde al dentista
You must learn to speak english well to get a good job nowadays  = Debes aprender hablar inglés bien para conseguir un buen trabajo hoy en día.
You must take off your shoes when you visit a Chinese family  = Debes quitarte los zapatos cuando visitas una familia China
You must finish the report this week  = Debes terminar el informe esta semana

2.) "MUST" también se suele usar para expresar algo mas personal que debemos hacer o es aconsejable que lo hagamos
Ejemplos: En estas frases se usa "must" en inglés y en español se podría usar "tener que"
You must call your sister and tell her your sorry  = Debes llamar a tu hermana y decirla que lo sientes
I haven´t seen my friend Juan in a long time. I must send him an e-mail.  = No he visto a mi amigo Juan en mucho tiempo. Debo (tengo que) enviaré un correo electrónico
You must go to the doctor if you don´t feel well  = Debes ir al médico si no te encuentras bien
I must practice speaking more english  = Debo (tengo que) practicar hablar mas inglés
I must make an appointment to see my dentist  = Debo pedir hora para ver a mi dentista
María sings very well. You must hear her sing  = María canta muy bien. Debes oírla cantar

3.) También se usa "MUST" cuando vemos con nuestros propios ojos que algo es evidente
Ejemplos:
Honey, you´ve been driving all day. Let´s stop. You must be tired  = Cariño, has estado conduciendo todo el día. Paramos. Debes de estar cansado
You don´t look well. You must be ill  = No tienes buen aspecto. Debes de estar enfermo
He must not like his job very much because he always comes home in a bad mood  = No debe gustarle su trabajo mucho porqué siempre viene a casa de mal humor
The film was really good. You must be joking; I fell asleep  = La película era muy buena. Debes de estar bromeando; yo me dormí
You must be crazy driving when you´re drunk! = Debes de estar loco conduciendo cuando estás borracho!
There must have been an accident because all the cars are stopped  = Debe de haber habido un accidente porque todos los coches están parrados
You must apologize to her  = Debes disculparte con ella
Your father must be a very busy man!  =  Tu padre debe ser un hombre muy ocupado!

4.) Otros usos de "MUST" Se puede usar MUST al principio de una frase para dar mas énfasis
Ejemplos:
Must you always have the music so loud?  = ¿Hace falta que tengas la música tan alta?
Must you always drive so fast?  = ¿Hace falta / Es necesario que conduzcas tan rápido?
Must you always speak with your mouth full?  = ¿Es necesario que siempre hables con la boca llena?
Must your boss always be such a pain in the neck?  = ¿Es necesario que tu jefe siempre sea un pesado?


5.) MUST también se puede poner al final de la frase y significa: esencial o indispensable
Speaking English fluently is a must  = Hablar inglés con fluidez es esencial
Having a car for this job is a must  = Tener un coche para este trabajo es indispensable
Having a computer at home is a must   = Tener un ordenador en casa es indispensable
This book is a must  = Hay que leer este libro


                                                "We have to do exercise as much as possible"

6.) "HAVE TO"se usa cuando la obligación no es tan personal y no tan fuerte
I have to work late because I have a lot of work = Tengo que trabajar hasta tarde porque tengo mucho trabajo
You have to see the movie / film. It´s really good  = Tienes que ver la película. Es muy buena
I think I have to buy a new laptop = Creo que tengo que comprar un nuevo portátil
You don´t have to call me everyday  = No tienes que llamarme todos los días
I don´t have to wear a tie at work  = N tengo que llevar una corbata al trabajo
I have to do more exercise because I´m getting fat  = Tengo que hacer mas ejercicio porque estoy engordando
We have to paint the bedrooms  = Tenemos que pintar los dormitorios
We have to save money so we can go on vacation in summer  = Tenemos que ahorrar dinero para poder ir de vacaciones en verano
You don´t have to give me back the money until you get a job  = No tienes que devolverme el dinero hasta que consigas un trabajo

Grammar exercise : Poner « Must or Have to » según el contexto de la frase
 (see solution below)
1. ……………you always be such a pain!
2. You don´t………….go to the party if you don´t want to.
3. I………….ask you a little favor. It´s important.
4. Speaking English fluently is a ................to get a good job.
5. Linda looks awful. She…………..be ill.
6. You…………smoke in the elevator / lift .(negative sentence)
7. You………….leave or you´ll be late.
8. Your friend…………go and see a doctor.
9.  Do you...............finísh the report today?
10. My boss told me that I..................come to work a little earlier.
11. I…………….have fallen asleep on the couch.
12. It…………..be cold outside because everyone´s wearing coats and hats.
13. People in this company don´t ..............wear a suit on Fridays.
14. Look how happy she is ! She..................be in love.

15. You know you…………..tell her, don´t you? If not, she will be very angry.

Traslation exercise (ver solución mas abajo)
1. Debéis pedir permiso para sacar fotos o te quitarán la camera.
2. Debes pedir hora para ver el dentista o puede que pierdas tu muela.
3. No debes llegar tarde o sino el jefe se mosqueará.
4. Debo irme si quiero coger el tren de las siete.
5. Debes de estar harto de siempre conducir tanto para ir al trabajo.
6. Debo te tener hambre porque mi estómago está haciendo ruidos extraños.
7. Es necesario que hagas tanto ruido. Estoy hablando por teléfono.
8. Hay que ver esta película. Es la mejor película que jamás he visto.
9. Tienes que llamar a tu madre o se enfadará.
10. Tengo que comprar un traje para ir a una entrevista.
11. No tienes que llamarme todos los días.
12. Hablar inglés con fluidez es indispensable para conseguir un trabajo hoy en día.
13. Me tengo que ir porque debo llegar a la reunión a tiempo.
14. ¿Es necesario que me hables de esa manera?


Here´s a fantastic song “It must have been love”


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uTM78XsU8GQ
Lyrics                                                 Translated  by alan    
It must have been love,                        Debió de haber sido amor 
but it's over now                                   pero se ha acabado
Lay a whisper on my pillow                Deja un susurro sobre mi almohada
Leave the winter on the ground           Deja el invierno en el suelo
I wake up lonely,                                 Me desperté sola
there's air of silence                             en el aire ha silencio
In the bedroom and all around             En el dormitorio y alrededor
Touch me now, I close my eyes          Tócame ahora, cierro los ojos
And dream away...                               Y empiezo a soñar
It must have been love,                         Debió de haber sido amor
but it's over now                                    pero se ha acabado
It must have been good,                        Debió de haber sido bueno
but I lost it somehow                             pero de alguna manera lo perdí
It must have been love,                         Debió de haber sido amor
but it's over now                                    pero se ha acabado
From the moment we touched               Desde el momento que nos tocamos
 till the time had run out                        hasta que el tiempo de acababa
Make believing we're together              Fingiendo que estamos juntos
That I'm sheltered by your heart            Que estoy resguardado por tu corazón
But in and outside I turn to water          Pero por dentro me convierto en agua
Like a teardrop in your palm                 Como una lagrima en tu palma
And it's a hard winter's day                    Y es un día duro de invierno
I dream away...                                       Empiezo a soñar
It must have been love,                           Debió de haber sido amor
but it's over now                                      pero se ha acabado
It was all that I wanted,                           Era todo lo que quería
now I'm living without                            ahora vivo sin ello
It must have been love,                           Debió de haber sido amor
but it's over now                                       pero se ha acabado
It's where the water flows,                        Es donde fluye el agua
it's where the wind blows                         Es donde sopla el viento
It must have been love,                             Debió de haber sido amor
but it's over now                                        pero se ha acabado
It must have been good,
but I lost it somehow
It must have been love,                              «                 «        « 
but it's over now
From the moment we touched
till the time had run out 
It must have been love,
but it's over now
It was all that I wanted,
now I'm living without                              «                «          « 
It must have been love,
 but it's over now
It's where the water flows,
it's where the wind blows
[Thanks to CUtebabe589@aol.com for corrections
]


Grammar solution:
1.Must   2.have to  3.must   4.must   5.must   6.mustn´t   7.have to / must   8.must   9.have to   10.have to  11.must   12.must   13.have to   14.must   15.must

Translation solution
1. You must ask for permission to take pictures or they´ll take away the camera.
2. You must make an appointment to see the dentist or else you might lose your tooth.
3. You mustn´t arrive late or else the boss will get pissed off.
4. I must leave if I want to catch the seven o´clock train.
5. You must be fed up always driving so much to go to work.
6. I must be hungry beacuse my stomach is making strange noises.
7. Must you make so much noise? I´m on the phone.
8. This movie / film is a must-see. It´s the best movie I´ve ever seen.
9. You have to call your mother or she´ll get angry.
10. I have to buy a suit to go on a interview.
11. You don´t have to call me everyday.
12. Speaking English fluently is a must if you want to get a job nowadays.
13. I have to go because I must get to the meeting on time.
14. Must you always talk to me in that way?

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